List of terms for OSH
Risk analysis is systematic use of available information, methods and procedures for identification of the danger and subsequent assessment of the risk resulting from this danger.
A summary of all measures (technical, technological, legal, administrative, organizational, …) working together to prevent emergence of occupational accidents, occupational diseases and other threats to human health and life, due to work activities.
§ 102 of the Labor Code imposes on an employer a clear obligation: „The employer is obliged to have a documentation about the search and evaluation of risks and of the measures taken under the first sentence.“ This documentation is usually a directive or other documents describing the methodology for identifying and evaluating risks, which is also called as risk register – summary of all risks.
Ergonomics focus on the relationship between man, environment and tools, as well as the adjustment of work to man. It is a multidisciplinary field that is affected by disciplines such as biomechanics, work physiology, anthropology, psychology of work, work safety, but also socio-economic fields, which range is very wide.
The eligibility of an individual to have rights and obligations starts at birth. This eligibility has also a conceived child, if is born alive. If OSH and fire protection talks about individuals, all persons are meant, not just employees.
Risk assessment is a process that follows the estimation of risk, respectively risk analysis. Risk evaluation is the last step in the process of risk assessment. Risk assessment is a process where each risk is assigned by a value, so called level of risk. The level of risk (R) is generally calculated from the probability of negative effect of risk (P) and the rate of consequences caused by exposure at risk (C). Generally R = P * C. In the level of risk R can also include other, so called deteriorating / mitigating factors (endangering a large number of people, a significant threat to the environment, the presence of fire safety equipment, the distance of closest fire station and many others).
Fire Department of the Czech Republic
For a good risk analysis, it’s necessary to obtain input data, what means to identify the hazard. Based on the hazard identification, it is also possible to estimate the risk. Hazard identification is a process in which interested persons try to detect any hazards that may represent a source of risk. Hazard identification takes into account also factors such as physical, chemical, biological factors and factors of organizational character. For hazard identification can be used deductive method of observation and data collection, pre-prepared checklist, commonly used methods such as What-If; HAZOP, Dow’s Chemical Index, Dow’s Fire Explosion Index or some others.
Risk assessment should be communicated. Risk communication means informing all interested persons, i.e. persons who are exposed to the risk about a danger, which is a source of the risk, about the extent and level of the risk and about the proposed and adopted safety measures designed to minimize or eliminate the risk. Risk communication must always be done in verifiable way. Even the Labor Code in its § 108 imposes on employers the following obligation: “The employer is obliged to make possible to trade union and representative for occupational safety and health or directly to employees to:
- listen to their information, comments and proposals for the adoption of measures related to occupational safety and health, in particular proposals to eliminate risks or reduce impact of risks that cannot be eliminated;
- discuss important action on occupational safety and health; risk assessment, adoption and implementation of measures to reduce their impact, the performance of work in controlled areas and classification of work into categories. “
In risk communication it is also necessary to pay attention on other employer’s obligations imposed by § 101 and § 103 of the Labor Code.
- If the work at the workplace is done by employees of two or more employers, these employers are obliged to inform each other in writing about the risks and measures taken to protect against their effects related to the performance of work and the workplace;
- ensure that employees, especially employees employed on fixed-term contracts, temporary agency workers temporarily assigned to perform work for another employer, juvenile employees, will according to the needs of the work performed get sufficient and appropriate information and guidance on occupational safety and health under this Act and under special legislation, in particular through introduction to risks, risk assessment results and measures for protection against the effects of these risks regarding their work and workplace;
- the employer is obliged to provide employees with trainings on legal and other regulations to ensure occupational safety and health that complement their professional qualifications and requirements for work relating to the work they perform and are subject to risks with which the employee can come into contact at workplace on which the work is done and continuously require and control their observance.
Detergents, cleaners and disinfectants used for personal hygiene of employees must be provided by the employer free of charge, according to the provisions of the Labor Code and Government Regulation no. 495/2001 Coll., laying down the extent and detailed conditions for providing personal protective equipment, washing, cleaning and disinfecting agents.
Regulation of the employer concerning in particular working techniques for the use of equipment, rules of moving the equipment and personnel in areas and workplaces of the employer.
Space inside or outside the facility, where the employee is exposed to health risk.
Disease mentioned in Government Regulation no. 290/1995 Coll., establishing a list of occupational diseases, as amended.
An employee who uses this device and is authorized for this activity.
Mechanical, electrical, electronic or other similar equipment used for the safety and protection of life and health of employees.
Risk estimation is a process executed on the basis of risk analysis. Based on the risk estimation an idea of the extent, i.e. severity of the risk is made. In risk estimation we work with two basic components. These are the probability of the negative effect of the risk (P) and rate of consequences caused during exposure to the risk (C). To estimate the risk, we use processed methodology. It is appropriate to include into estimation of the level of risk also the number of persons that may be endangered by the risk, relationship to other risks, environmental and material damages that may arise from the effects of risk and other possible factors, according to specific conditions in the company. During estimation we work with statistically obtained data and empirical data.
Protective drink is a drink provided by the employer to employees and designed to protect their health from the risks of heat and cold. Protective drinks are provided in accordance with Government Regulation no. 361/2007 Coll., laying down the conditions of health protection at work, as amended.
If it isn’t possible to eliminate the risk or sufficiently limit the collective protection or measures of organization of work, the employer must provide employees with personal protective equipment. Personal protective equipment is protective equipment that must protect workers against risks, it can’t endanger their health, must not hinder the performance of work and must meet the requirements set in special legislation (Government Regulation no. 21/2003 Coll., laying down technical requirements for personal protective equipment, as amended). Personal protective equipment is divided into three categories, which are: Category I: Personal protective equipment of simple design, which is based on the fact that the user can assess by himself the level of protection provided against individual gradually performing minimal risks, which can be identified by the user safely and on time, the examination is not required. Category II: Personal protecting equipment doesn’t meet the requirements for classification in categories I. and III.; Category III: Personal protective equipment of complex design intended to protect against mortal danger or against dangers that may seriously and irreversibly harm the health and where the design is based on the fact that the user cannot identify their immediate effects in sufficient time.
Qualified person in accordance with § 10 of the Act no. 309/2006 Coll., stipulating further requirements of occupational safety and health in labor relations and ensuring the safety and health during activities or providing services outside labor relations (Act on securing other conditions for occupational safety and health), as amended.
The commitment of top management of the company to perform OSH tasks and permanent maintenance of safe and healthy workplaces and working conditions.
Provider in the field of general practice or provider in the field of occupational medicine. Formerly known as the doctor of preventive care.
Risk assessment is a process that includes risk analysis, i.e. hazard identification and risk estimation, as well as risk assessment process. During the process of risk assessment, it depends on the risk evaluation determined whether a particular risk is for the company acceptable or unacceptable. If it is unacceptable it must immediately follow the process of controlling of the risk, re-evaluation of the risk until the time this risk becomes acceptable. For assessing the risks serves predetermined methodology.
Activity connected especially with starting, stopping, transport, repair, adjustment, manipulation, alteration, maintenance and cleaning throughout its operation.
Injury or death of an employee, if it happened independently of his will by sudden and violent action of external influences in his work or in direct connection with him (§ 380 of Labor Code).
In accordance with § 349 these are regulations for ensuring occupational safety and health, which are the regulations for the protection of life and health, hygienic and anti-epidemic regulations, technical regulations, technical documents and technical standards, constructing regulations, traffic regulations, fire protection regulations and regulations on handling flammable materials, explosives, weapons, radioactive materials, chemicals and chemical products and other substances harmful to health, if regulate issues related to the protection of life and health.
Set of documents containing accompanying documentation, record of last or extraordinary revision or control if provided by a special legal regulation or if such legislation is not issued, if provided by accompanying documentation or the employer.
Set of documentation containing manufacturer’s instructions for assembly, handling, repair, maintenance, initial and subsequent periodic checks and inspections of the equipment, as well as guidelines for a replacement or change of parts of the equipment.
Risk regulation is a process of adopting security measures against risks in order to minimize them, respectively to eliminate them. By adoption of security measures the level of risks reduces. A risk that remains even after the adoption of security measures is called residual risk. Combination of probability and consequence of negative effect. Risks occur where there are “dangers”, respectively hazardous working environment factors, while people are in the exposure field of these hazards.
Senior employees of the employer are the employees who are at various levels of management of the employer authorized to give to subordinate employees work tasks, organize, manage and supervise their work and give them binding instructions for this purpose.
Dedicated technical equipment, i.e. equipment that represent an increased threat to human life and health. It is electrical, pressure, lifting and gas equipment.